High blood pressure is the most common pathology among diseases of the cardiovascular system, 30% of the world's population suffer from it. Hypertension is incurable, but there are methods to help improve the patient's quality of life - proper nutrition is one of the most important of them. A diet for hypertension can not only improve the general condition of the patient, but also reduce blood pressure, which is always true for hypertensive patients.
What is hypertension?
Arterial hypertension (hypertension) - a persistent increase in blood pressure. Due to the uneven compression of the vessels, the patient has poor blood supply to the main organs: kidneys, liver, brain, heart, etc. According to the World Health Organization, the normal pressure for an adult is 140/90 mm Hg. Art. and below. Pressure 150/95 mm Hg Art. considered a sign of hypertension.
Pathology is terrible not only as symptoms, but as consequences - as a result of advanced hypertension, there is a high probability of developing myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, renal and heart failure, which is fraught with disability and even death.
Factors affecting the occurrence of hypertension include:
- excess weight;
- stress, nervous tension;
- age (the older the person, the greater the likelihood of developing hypertension);
- improper nutrition (as a result - high cholesterol and weak vessels);
- excessive consumption of water and salt;
- gender (men are more prone to pathology than women);
- bad habits (alcohol, smoking);
- late toxicosis during pregnancy.
Symptoms in the initial stages of the disease are minor: headaches, chronic fatigue, dizziness. Often, patients do not attach importance to the early manifestations of hypertension, try to relax more and the symptoms go away by themselves. But this is not an indicator of recovery - over time, the disease progresses, signs begin to appear that cannot be ignored: noises in the head, swelling, redness of the face and hands, etc. Hypertension is accompanied by crises - uneven pressure surges, during which the patient's condition worsens sharply.
Specialists distinguish three stages of hypertension:
- I stage. A slight increase in blood pressure is observed without interruptions in the work of the cardiovascular system.
- II stage. There is a "expansion" of the heart - an increase in the left ventricle, increased pressure.
- III stage. Damage to organs (brain, heart, kidneys, fundus) is observed.
During the treatment of hypertension, it is important not only to gradually lower blood pressure, but also to monitor other organs and systems, because this can negatively affect their work. It is important to strictly observe all the recommendations of the doctor, and some patients need to completely change their lifestyle. Hypertension therapy includes:
- drug treatment;
- physiotherapeutic methods;
- adherence to a special diet;
- regular exercise;
- the use of folk remedies.
Diet for hypertension
Compliance with the special principles of nutrition and daily routine has a beneficial effect on patients, in some cases there is a complete refusal to use medications (such a decision is made only by a doctor individually). A diet for hypertensives is aimed at lowering blood pressure, strengthening the walls of blood vessels, enriching the body with essential nutrients. Nutrition for hypertension in its principles is similar to cholesterol, because blood pressure and cholesterol are interconnected.
A high-pressure diet should comply with the following guidelines:
- Meals should be taken 5-6 times a day in small portions - breakfast should be nutritious, but not heavy, and a light dinner should be eaten 2-3 hours before bedtime.
- Water consumption should be limited - the total volume of all liquid drunk per day should be 1.0-1.2 liters.
- Food should be steamed, stew, bake or cook; It is forbidden to use fried, salty, spicy, smoked.
- The patient should limit or completely eliminate salt intake, this will lead to a decrease in edema and blood thinning, which will beneficially affect the stabilization of pressure. For hypertension, the table should have its own salt shaker, a daily dose of salt per day (up to 5 g) is poured into it, so the patient will be able to control the daily intake of the product.
- If the patient is overweight, he needs to think about losing weight. According to statistics, in the vast majority of cases, pressure in hypertensive patients with excess weight after losing weight returned to normal.
- It is recommended to eat foods rich in potassium, magnesium and calcium, and avoid foods that contain sodium (this helps to remove cholesterol from the body).
- The menu for hypertensive patients should contain a sufficient amount of proteins, vitamins, minerals to stabilize protein metabolism and strengthen the general immunity of the body.
- The patient should replace animal fats with vegetable fats in his diet, because this helps lower blood pressure.
- Experts advise to refuse foods high in sugar - this will help normalize carbohydrate metabolism.
- Hypertension is contraindicated in alcohol and smoking.
Also, patients with high blood pressure are recommended to eat foods enriched with selenium, a chemical element that can have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, prevent arrhythmias, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, and increase the tone of the heart muscle. Selenium is present in foods such as lobsters, herring, nuts, squid, etc.
The main principle of nutrition for most women is the low calorie intake of food when there is a sufficient amount of healthy nutrients. The diet for hypertension corresponds to these signs, therefore it is especially popular among women. In addition, the principles of nutrition for hypertension help boost immunity and rejuvenate the body. For women, adding to the diet is important:
- olive oil;
- different varieties of red fish;
- dried fruits.
Nutrition for hypertension implies the exclusion of meat and fish fried in oil, which is especially difficult for males, who have always been considered connoisseurs of such dishes. There is a way out of this situation - meat or fish must be fried in a special grill pan, which involves cooking without oil. In addition, it is recommended to add:
- red fish;
What to eat at high pressure
The following foods can be taken for hypertensive patients:
Allowed foods for hypertension
Foods that can be consumed in limited quantities
What you can not eat with high pressure
Consider which foods should not be used for hypertensive patients:
- pastries, cakes, pastries, biscuits, fried flour products;
- meat and fish of fatty varieties, smoked, pickled, canned products, sausages;
- strong coffee and tea, cocoa, sweet carbonated drinks;
- soups cooked in fatty varieties of fish and meat;
- ice cream, chocolate;
- spicy spices, marinades, sauces;
Table number 10
Nutritionists have developed several diets for the treatment of various diseases of organs and systems. Table No. 10 is shown to people with pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The developer of this diet is the Soviet scientist M.I. Pevzner. He created a diet that is ideal for patients with hypertension - unloads the digestive system with minimal burden on the kidneys, and regulates the weight of the patient. Table No. 10 is prescribed for patients with arterial hypertension, vascular atherosclerosis, thyroid insufficiency, diseases of the central nervous system.
Calorie intake depends on the weight of the patient. A person with a normal body weight should consume up to 2500 kcal per day; for overweight patients, this indicator decreases to 2000 kcal due to a decrease in the amount of carbohydrates and dividing the daily diet by 6 meals. Dishes for table No. 10 are steamed with a minimal addition of vegetable fiber. Patients with obesity are recommended to drink up to 700 ml of fluid per day, the rest - up to 1200 ml.
A feature of table No. 10 for hypertensive patients is to increase the amount of dietary fiber and replace animal fat with vegetable fat - this helps to rid the body of excess cholesterol and stabilize fat metabolism. Products such as goose, duck, rich borscht and soups, fatty meat, smoked sausages, the patient should be completely excluded from the diet, replacing them with more wholesome and tasty food. Over time, hypertensive patients no longer need illegal foods, getting used to a balanced and healthy diet.
Features of nutrition in the II and III stages of hypertension
Nutrition in severe forms of hypertension requires closer monitoring of the quality and quantity of foods used. Salt, fatty meat (duck, goose, pork, lamb) and fish (halibut, mackerel), dairy products with a high fat content are completely excluded. Eggs are allowed in the amount of 2 pieces per week, meat broth - not more than 1 time in 6-7 days. It should increase the intake of fruits, vegetables, buckwheat and oatmeal. Once a week it is recommended to arrange a fasting day (for example, 1.5 liters of kefir or 1.5 kg of apples).
Diet in old age
According to studies, 50-60% of the population over 60 years of age suffer from hypertension, so proper nutrition with high blood pressure in old age is especially important. Immunity is weakened, patients have pathologies of different organs and systems - because of this, hypertension becomes an even more dangerous disease, with deadly consequences (heart attack, stroke). Rules:
- Older people need to eat only lean meat, a variety of cereals, fruits, vegetables.
- Food should be balanced (sufficiently saturated with proteins, carbohydrates, fats) and low-calorie, if necessary (for patients with excess weight).
- It is recommended to take walks in the fresh air every day, abandon bad habits, observe the regimen.
Approximate one-day menu
The daily diet of hypertension should include up to 50 g of sugar, about 10 g of oil, up to 5 g of salt, 300 g of wheat and rye bread. Sample menu for the day (3 options to choose from):
Steamed protein omelet
Coleslaw with apples
First: low-fat hodgepodge
Oatmeal with dried fruits
Cottage cheese pasta
First: potato and rice soup
Second: steam cutlets
Vegetable casserole with minced fish
Rice porridge in milk
First: carrot soup
Second: baked carp with vegetables
Dessert: dried fruit compote
Pike perch fillet baked with vegetables
Menu for the week
Nutritionists advise not to be limited to one or two permitted dishes, but to use in their diet all the variety of products to obtain the maximum amount of nutrients. The patient should arrange fasting days once a week, avoid overeating and starvation. Sample menu for seven days:
For the night
Oatmeal with dried fruits, weak tea with milk
Vegetable borscht, baked fish, compote
Beetroot puree with steam patties
Glass of kefir
Fruit salad with yogurt, lemon tea, a slice of marshmallows
Carrot soup, baked fish with vegetables, jelly
Glass of kefir
Fruit puree, milk, biscuit cookies
A glass of tomato juice
Soup with noodles, mashed potatoes with steam patties, kissel
Buckwheat Chicken Zrazy
Glass of milk at room temperature
Buckwheat porridge with milk, tea with lemon, a piece of marmalade
Cottage cheese pasta with dried fruits
Beetroot soup, carrot puree with steam patties, fruit souffle
Minced Vegetable Casserole
Glass of kefir
Frayed cottage cheese with fruit, tea with milk, dried apricots
Vegetarian soup, chicken fillet stew, fruit mousse
Steamed protein omelet with vegetables, milk, biscuit cookies
Vegetable oil vinaigrette
Oat soup, potato casserole with minced fish, jam
Fresh Vegetable Salad with Steam Cutlets
Glass of kefir
Soft-boiled egg, milk tea, marshmallows
Apple or grapefruit
Milk rice soup, buckwheat porridge with boiled meat, marmalade
Eggplant boiled rice
Tea with milk